. Collective agreements as such can only take effect once notification has been made: Lohnbildungsgesetz (Wet op de loonvorming) art. 4. . One of these disputes concerned the mobile crane sector: did the workers employed in this sector fall under the agreement for the construction industry or rather the agreement for transport workers?: see Decree on the general applicability DCA nr. 7732, Bijv.Stcrt. 9 March 1993, No. 47, p. 7. Others concern the situation of drivers of safety vans used for the transport of money (transport or security?) and workers in the IT sector (specific agreement, office equipment/utilities, assembly/metallurgical industry?:, see A. Van Liempt & A.
van Uffelen, Arbeidsverhoudingen in ontwikkeling, het ambivalente karakter van arbeidsvoorwaarden-regelingen in de ICT-sector, SMA 2000, pp. 244-252). However, these developments have not diminished the role of collective agreements. These have even increased in scope and number. What has changed, however, is the nature of collective agreements. Not only do they leave more freedom to the individual, but they must also be supplemented in most cases by agreements at the company level. Negotiations at company level are often left to works councils, which are gradually seen as strategic partners of trade unions in the protection of workers. The overall effect of these changes is a movement towards differentiation and fragmentation of working conditions within a certain margin. The level of negotiation that has lost the most impact is coordination at the national level. . See Nota Algemeen verklaren van cao-bepalingen (Government Memorandum on the General Applicability of Collective Agreements) K II 1993-1994, 23532, nr. 2, pp.
9-33. If the employee is under the age of 18, the employee`s parent or guardian must also sign the termination agreement. Employers and employees may agree to terminate a transitional instrument on the basis of individual agreements by concluding a termination agreement. . Home Care Agreement (CAO Thuiszorg) 2000/2001 Art. 3, AI nr. 9310, Bijv.Stcrt. 20.01.2000, No 14.
In the Netherlands, the legal status of trade unions and the industrial relations system are largely based on general rules on the one hand and on international agreements on the other. Although collective agreements and their general applicability are governed by special legislation, the negotiation process leading to their conclusion received little or no attention from the legislature. The Constitution does not contain articles specifically relating to industrial relations. The freedom to form, act and be a member of trade unions is governed by the right of association guaranteed by article 8 of the Constitution.  Trade unions as institutions are subject to the rules of association provided for in Articles 26 et seq. of the Civil Code.  The right to strike has in no way been codified and is based on case law. This lack of constitutional protection has not hindered the development of trade unions and industrial relations in the Netherlands.
This is partly the result of the Dutch system of judicial review, which considerably reduces the legal effect of the Constitution and instead favours international conventions. Legislation corrected by the courts cannot be based on a violation of the Constitution: article 120 of the Constitution expressly stipulates that the courts shall not rule on the constitutionality of laws and international conventions. However, the courts may repeal legal provisions if these provisions violate contractual provisions having direct effect in the Dutch legal system.  Such universally binding treaty provisions can be found in the European Social Charter (Article 6(4) on the right to strike is recognised as directly effective), the European Convention on Human Rights and the International Convention on Social and Economic Rights. . . .