A letter from C2ES explains the latest steps taken to increase the visibility of non-governmental measures within the UNFCCC and options for a closer link between the two measures. The agreement was based on a broad principles, the most fundamental of which is their foundation in a broader context of sustainable development – a common concern of humanity. The agreement recognizes that climate change poses an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human society and that as broad cooperation as possible from all countries is needed to mobilize stronger and more ambitious measures to combat climate change in order to accelerate the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The key to the agreement is the principle of justice and common but differentiated responsibilities. This principle applies to the different requirements imposed on parts of developed and developing countries. In addition, the agreement establishes a new mechanism to “facilitate the implementation and promotion of respect.” This “non-contradictory” expert panel will try to help countries that are lagging behind their commitments get back on track. There is no penalty for non-compliance. If the United States joined the agreement, it would be technically necessary to implement an NDC within 30 days. While African development experts praise the Paris agreement, they also acknowledge that the continent`s implementation record has not been exceptional. However, the general consensus is that Africa seems determined to implement the agreement. Initially, the African Union Commission (AUC) and UNEP have already set up the Ecosystem-Based Adaptation for Food Security Assembly (EBAFOSA) as a policy and implementation platform. This platform aims to promote and support agricultural value-added chains through an agricultural approach adopted by the EBA. In order to achieve sustainable and inclusive growth, countries are invited to incorporate these techniques into their agricultural policy and implementation.
Countries have committed to presenting new or updated NDCs by 2020 and every five years thereafter. Any new or extended NDC should go beyond its predecessor and be as ambitious as possible. Negotiations on the Paris regulatory framework at COP 24 proved to some extent to be more difficult than those that led to the Paris Agreement, as the parties faced a range of technical and political challenges and, in some respects, applied more to the development of the general provisions of the agreement through detailed guidelines. Delegates adopted rules and procedures on mitigation, transparency, adaptation, financing, periodic inventories and other Paris provisions. However, they have failed to agree on rules relating to Article 6, which provides for voluntary cooperation between the parties in the implementation of their NDCs, including by applying market-based approaches. The broad principles that form the basis of South Africa`s commitment to reducing global CO2 emissions of equity, accountability, capacity and sustainable development are essential for all activities now and in the future. It is also recognized that developed countries responsible for setting up current global emission levels have a responsibility to assist developing countries that are tasked with contributing to overall emission reductions by providing climate finance and other technological know-how so that they can meet their country-by-country reduction commitments. The Paris Conference was the 21st meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), known as COP 21.